You are charged with a State criminal charge when a state law has been violated. This type of violation is prosecuted in the state court system. You are charged with a Federal criminal charge when a federal law has been violated. This type of violation is prosecuted by a US attorney in the federal court [...]
An arraignment is the process of the court telling you what you are officially charged with. The arraignment happens after the police have arrested you and have filed a criminal complaint against you.